BackgroundIntermittent smoking is prevalent among Hispanics, but little is known about whether this smoking pattern associates with increased chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in this population. The objective of the present study is to identify patterns of exposure associated with CKD in US Hispanics. MethodsWe used cross-sectional data on 15 410 participants of the Hispanics Community Health Study/the Study of Latinos, a population-based study of individuals aged 18-74 years, recruited in 2008 to 2011 from four US field centers (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA). Smoking exposure was obtained through a questionnaire. CKD was defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. ResultsApproximately 14% of individuals were daily and 7% were intermittent smokers, and 16% were past smokers. There was a significant interaction between smoking status and pack-years of exposure (P = 0.0003). In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of CKD among daily, intermittent and past smokers by pack-years compared with never smokers. The association of intermittent smokers was significant at 10 pack-years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.06, 1.81], whereas for daily smokers this association was observed at 40 pack-years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.89). ConclusionsOur findings of increased risk of CKD among Hispanics who are intermittent smokers support screening and smoking cessation interventions targeted to this population for the prevention of CKD. It also suggests novel mechanistic pathways for kidney toxicity that should be further explored in future studies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The HCHS/SOL was carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert Einstein College of Medicine (N01-HC65235), Northwestern University (N01-HC65236) and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following institutes, centers or offices contribute to the HCHS/SOL through a transfer of funds to the NHLBI: National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Office of Dietary Supplements. A.C.R. and J.P.L. are funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K23 DK094829, A.C.R.; K24 DK092290, J.P.L.). N.F. and J.C. had full access to the data and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. N.F. is supported by the National Institutes of Health grant R21HL123677-01.
© 2016 The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
- chronic kidney disease
- intermittent smoking