Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3, syn. koi herpesvirus) is an important pathogen worldwide and a common cause of mass mortality events of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in North America, however, reference strains and genomes obtained from wild carp are not available. Additionally, it is unclear if fishes in North America are susceptible to CyHV-3 infection due to incomplete susceptibility testing. Here we present the first North American type strain and whole-genome sequence of CyHV-3 isolated from wild carp collected from a lake with a history and recent incidence of carp mortality. Additionally, the strain was used in an in-vivo infection model to test the susceptibility of a common native minnow (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carrasius auratus) which is invasive in North America. Detection of CyHV-3 DNA was confirmed in the tissues of a single fathead minnow but the same tissues were negative for CyHV-3 mRNA and samples from exposed fathead minnows were negative on cell culture. There was no detection of CyHV-3 DNA or mRNA in goldfish throughout the experiment. CyHV-3 DNA in carp tissues was reproducibly accompanied by the detection of CyHV-3 mRNA and isolation on cell culture. Additionally, environmental CyHV-3 DNA was detected on all tank filters during the study. These findings suggest that fathead minnows and goldfish are not susceptible to CyHV-3 infection and that detection of CyHV-3 DNA alone in host susceptibility trials should be interpreted with caution.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Common carp brain cells (CCB) and Koi fin cells (KF-1) were kindly provided by Dr. Thomas B. Waltzek (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida). Valuable advice on best practices for wild carp field sampling were provided by Dr. Peter Hundt and Dr. Przemeslaw Bajer and lab and fieldwork assistance were provided by Morgan Hardy, Morgan Linn, and Nathan Swanson (College of Food Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Minnesota). Carp collection assistance was also kindly provided by local commercial fishing company, Mike’s Rough Fish. Funding for this study was provided by the Environment and Natural Resource Trust Fund (L.A. 2017 (00080373)), as recommended by the Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center, and the State of Minnesota.
© 2021, The Author(s).