A new Cardiac Electrical Sparse Imaging (CESI) technique is proposed to image cardiac activation throughout the three-dimensional myocardium from body surface electrocardiogram (ECG) with the aid of individualized heart-torso geometry. The sparse property of cardiac electrical activity in the time domain is utilized in the temporal sparse promoting inverse solution, one formulated to achieve higher spatial-temporal resolution, stronger robustness and thus enhanced capability in imaging cardiac electrical activity. Computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of this imaging method under various circumstances. A total of 12 single site pacing and 7 dual sites pacing simulations with artificial and the hospital recorded sensor noise were used to evaluate the accuracy and stability of the proposed method. Simulations with modeling error on heart-torso geometry and electrode-torso registration were also performed to evaluate the robustness of the technique. In addition to the computer simulations, the CESI algorithm was further evaluated using experimental data in an animal model where the noninvasively imaged activation sequences were compared with those measured with simultaneous intracardiac mapping. All of the CESI results were compared with conventional weighted minimum norm solutions. The present results show that CESI can image with better accuracy, stability and stronger robustness in both simulated and experimental circumstances. In sum, we have proposed a novel method for cardiac activation imaging, and our results suggest that the CESI has enhanced performance, and offers the potential to image the cardiac activation and to assist in the clinical management of ventricular arrhythmias.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Drs. S. Pogwizd and C. Han for useful discussions and assistance in the animal experiments. This work was partially supported by NIH HL080093 and NSF CBET-0756331.
- Cardiac activation
- ECG inverse problem
- cardiac electrical imaging
- cardiac pacing