Background: Many state Medicaid programs are implementing pharmacist-led medication management programs to improve outcomes for high-risk beneficiaries. There are a limited number of studies examining implementation of these programs, making it difficult to assess why program outcomes might vary across organizations. To address this, we tested the applicability of the organizational theory of innovation implementation effectiveness to examine implementation of a community pharmacy Medicaid medication management program. Methods: We used a hurdle regression model to examine whether organizational determinants, such as implementation climate and innovation-values fit, were associated with effective implementation. We defined effective implementation in two ways: implementation versus non-implementation and program reach (i.e., the proportion of the target population that received the intervention). Data sources included an implementation survey administered to participating community pharmacies and administrative data. Results: The findings suggest that implementation climate is positively and significantly associated with implementation versus non-implementation (AME = 2.65, p < 0.001) and with program reach (AME = 5.05, p = 0.001). Similarly, the results suggest that innovation-values fit is positively and significantly associated with implementation (AME = 2.17, p = 0.037) and program reach (AME = 11.79, p < 0.001). Some structural characteristics, such as having a clinical pharmacist on staff, were significant predictors of implementation and program reach whereas other characteristics, such as pharmacy type or prescription volume, were not. Conclusions: Our study supported the use of the organizational theory of innovation implementation effectiveness to identify organizational determinants that are associated with effective implementation (e.g., implementation climate and innovation-values fit). Unlike broader environmental factors or structural characteristics (e.g., pharmacy type), implementation climate and innovation-values fit are modifiable factors and can be targeted through intervention-a finding that is important for community pharmacy practice. Additional research is needed to determine what implementation strategies can be used by community pharmacy leaders and practitioners to develop a positive implementation climate and innovation-values fit for medication management programs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by grants from the Community Pharmacy Foundation (71560) and the North Carolina Translational and Clinical Sciences Institute (UL1TR001111). Additionally, the project described in this study was supported by funding opportunity number 1C12013003897 from the U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The contents provided are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of HHS or any of its agencies or other funders of this study.
© 2018 The Author(s).
- Community pharmacy
- Implementation climate
- Innovation-values fit
- Medication management
- Organizational theory