Artery wall hypoxia has been proposed to contribute to many kinds of artery wall pathology, including atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental oxygen on the transarterial wall oxygen gradients at a prosthetic vascular device (PVG)-to-artery anastomosis. The transarterial wall oxygen gradient in the infrarenal aorta of New Zealand White rabbits housed for 42 days in a 40% supplemental oxygen was measured with an oxygen microelectrode 2 mm distal to a PVG-to-artery anastomosis. Oxygen tensions were significantly increased throughout the artery wall at all time points in the supplemental oxygen groups compared to those in non-oxygen-supplemented groups. Within the oxygen-supplemented groups, the outer artery wall had diminished oxygen tensions immediately following creation of the anastomosis, with a slow return to control oxygen tensions on postanastomosis day 42 which correlated with a return of the vasa vasorum. These changes were noted without differences in blood pressure or arterial blood oxygen concentrations within the oxygen-supplemented group. Artery wall hypoxia noted following the creation of a PVG-toartery anastomosis can be eliminated and artery wall oxygen tensions significantly increased by the administration of supplemental oxygen.