Opioid analgesics have been the foundation of human pain management for centuries. In spite of their many debilitating side effects, prescription opioids remain a gold standard for treatment of chronic pain. The human body naturally produces its own, endogenous opiate-like substances in order to modulate pain mechanisms. Endogenous opioids mediate our reactions to painful stimuli by binding to opioid receptors which are widely distributed throughout most tissues and organ systems.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Nerve-Driven Immunity|
|Subtitle of host publication||Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides in the Immune System|
|Number of pages||28|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2012|