Purpose of Review: Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor that controls T and B cell proliferation and function through interacting with its ligand PD-L1 or PD-L2. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade reboots anti-tumor immunity and is currently used to treat > 15 different types of cancer. However, the response rate is not at 100% and some patients relapse. Importantly, up to 37% of patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies develop immune-related adverse events, including overt autoimmunity, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we discuss the role of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 signaling in pre-clinical models of T1D, including recent work from our laboratory. Recent Findings: We highlight ongoing efforts to harness PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and treat autoimmunity. We also evaluate studies aimed at defining biomarkers that could reliably predict the development of immune-related adverse events after clinical PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Summary: With increasing use of PD-1 blockade in the clinic, onset of autoimmunity is a growing health concern. In this review, we discuss what is known about the role of PD-1 pathway signaling in T1D and comment on ongoing efforts to identify patients at risk of T1D development after PD-1 pathway blockade.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by NIH P01 AI35296 (BTF).
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
- Checkpoint blockade
- Programmed death-1
- Type 1 diabetes
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural