The quest for new potent and safe adjuvants with which to skew and boost the immune response of vaccines against intracellular pathogens and cancer has led to the discovery of a series of small molecules that can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Whereas many small molecule TLR agonists cope with a problematic safety profile, amphotericin B (AmpB), a Food and Drug Administration approved antifungal drug, has recently been discovered to possess TLR-triggering activity. However, its poor aqueous solubility and cytotoxicity at elevated concentrations currently hampers its development as a vaccine adjuvant. We present a new class of transiently thermoresponsive polymers that, in their native state, have a phase-transition temperature below room temperature but gradually transform into fully soluble polymers through acetal hydrolysis at endosomal pH values. RAFT polymerization afforded well-defined block copolymers that self-assemble into micellar nanoparticles and efficiently encapsulate AmpB. Importantly, nanoencapsulation strongly reduced the cytotoxic effect of AmpB but maintained its TLR-triggering capacity. Studies in mice showed that AmpB-loaded nanoparticles can adjuvant an RSV vaccine candidate with almost equal potency as a highly immunogenic oil-in-water benchmark adjuvant.