TRAF2 has an important function in mediating the TNF-R signaling pathway toward activation of NF-κB and JNKs. Here we reveal a novel function of TRAF2 in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRAF2 blocked EGF-induced AP-1 activity and anchorage- independent cell transformation. Notably, we showed that EGF induces ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) ubiquitination, and knocking down TRAF2 suppresses ubiquitination of RSK2 induced by EGF. We also found that TRAF2 affects RSK2 activity through RSK2 ubiquitination. RSK2 plays a critical role in AP-1 activity mediated through CREB and c-Fos, which regulates anchorage-independent cell transformation. In addition, TRAF2 is overexpressed in colon cancer and required for colon cancer development, suggesting that TRAF2 might be a potential molecular target for cancer prevention and treatment.