Validation of glutathione quantitation from STEAM spectra against edited 1H NMR spectroscopy at 4T: Application to schizophrenia

Melissa Terpstra, T. J. Vaughan, Kamil Ugurbil, Kelvin O. Lim, S. Charles Schulz, Rolf Gruetter

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Objective: Quantitation of glutathione (GSH) in the human brain in vivo using short echo time 1 H NMR spectroscopy is challenging because GSH resonances are not easily resolved. The main objective of this study was to validate such quantitation in a clinically relevant population using the resolved GSH resonances provided by edited spectroscopy. A secondary objective was to compare several of the neurochemical concentrations quantified along with GSH using LCModel analysis of short echo time spectra in schizophrenia versus control. Materials and Methods: GSH was quantified at 4T from short echo STEAM spectra and MEGA-PRESS edited spectra from identical volumes of interest (anterior cingulate) in ten volunteers. Neurochemical profiles were quantified in nine controls and 13 medicated schizophrenic patients. Results: GSH concentrations as quantified using STEAM, 1.6 ± 0.4 μmol/g (mean ± SD, n=10), were within error of those quantified using edited spectra, 1.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g, and were not different (p=0.4). None of the neurochemical measurements reached sufficient statistical power to detect differences smaller than 10% in schizophrenia versus control. As such, no differences were observed. Conclusions: Human brain GSH concentrations can be quantified in a clinical setting using short-echo time STEAM spectra at 4T.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-282
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge Angie Guimaraes, Elizabeth Lemke, and Anne LaFave for assistance in recruitment and study organization, the staff at CMRR for maintaining the spectrometer, and support from the MIND institute and the NIH (P41RR08079, R. Gruetter).


  • Glutathione
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Schizophrenia


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