Hemostatic complications are commonly encountered in blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients, increasing their morbidity and mortality and are well described in the immediate post-transplantation period. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long-term survivors of autologous BMT has not been studied previously. Patients who underwent autologous BMT between January 1, 1974, and December 31, 2010 for a hematologic malignancy, lived 2 years or more after transplantation, and were age ≥18 years were surveyed for long-term outcomes. The median duration of follow-up was 9.8 years (interquartile range, 6.4 to 14.3 years). We analyzed the risk of VTE in 820 autologous BMT recipients who survived for ≥2 years, compared with 644 siblings. BMT survivors were at a 2.6-fold higher risk of VTE compared with siblings (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4; P =.0004), after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Conditional on surviving for ≥2 years after BMT, the mean cumulative incidence of VTE was 3.9 ± .8% at 5 years and 6.1 ± 1.1% at 10 years. A diagnosis of plasma cell disorder (hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.2; P = .004) and annual household income ≤$50,000 (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6; P = .015) were associated with increased VTE risk. Our data indicate that autologous BMT survivors are at elevated risk for developing late-occurring VTE. The development of risk prediction models to identify autologous BMT survivors at greatest risk for VTE and thromboprophylaxis may help decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with VTE.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial disclosure : This study was supported in part by grants from the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA078938 and U01 CA213140) and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (R6502-16) (to S.B.).
© 2019 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy
- Autologous BMT
- BMT survivors
- Plasma cell dyscrasia
- Venous thromboembolism