Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: Data from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

Lisa J Harnack, Shelley Ann H. Walters, David R Jacobs Jr

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83 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective This study characterizes whole grain consumption among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. Design Data used in this study were collected as part of the 1994-1996 US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). Subjects/Setting CSFII was designed to obtain a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized persons of all ages residing in the United States. Analyses reported in this article are limited to participants aged 2 to 18 years with two days of dietary recall data (n=4,802). Foods reported in the survey were quantified in servings as defined by the Food Guide Pyramid using the US Department of Agriculture Pyramid Servings Database, which contains reference data for each food reported in CSFII in servings per 100 g for 30 Pyramid food groups, including whole grain and total grain. Statistical Analyses Means, frequencies, and logistic regression analyses were conducted as appropriate. Results Average whole grain intake ranged from 0.8 servings per day for preschool-aged children to 1.0 servings per day for adolescents. Ready-to-eat cereals, corn and other chips, and yeast breads were found to be the major food sources of whole grains accounting for 30.9%, 21.7%, and 18.1% of whole grain intake respectively among those aged two to 18 years. Applications/Conclusions Given the apparent low level of whole grain intake among most children and adolescents in the United States, interventions are needed to increase intake of whole-grain foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:1015-1019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1015-1019
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Volume103
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by a cooperative agreement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Association of Schools of Public Health.

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